Upstream and Downstream Oil and Gas Production

If you work in an oil and gas company or industry, there’s a good chance you have heard of the following: upstream, downstream, and mid-stream. They are 3 related parts of the same things within the oil and gas sector.


upstream downstream oil and gas industry
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Upstream generally refers to anything to do with the exploration and production of any oil and natural gas. In upstream production, geologic surveys and gathering information are for the purpose of locating specific areas for minerals. Those are usually done in areas where minerals are most likely be found. Such surveys are known as “exploration” too.

In the oil and gas industry, upstream can also include the steps involving in the actual drilling. At the same time, it also includes bringing oil and natural gas to the surface. That process is known as production.

The few basic things you should know about upstream in the oil and gas industry are:

  • Upstream refers to an oil and gas company’s location in the supply chain.
  • Companies who identify, extract, or produce raw materials are usually the ones who conduct upstream activities.

You can often find people like geologists, geophysicists, service rig operators, engineers, scientists, in the upstream part of the industry. Those people will locate and estimate the oil reserves before starting the actual drilling activity.


upstream, midstream, downstreamFuel Products
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Downstream in the oil and gas sector is its final stage. It usually includes turning crude oil and natural oil into final marketable products. Downstream oil and gas work around that has to do with the manufacturing of products with its help. The most common final stage product you see on the markets every day are fuels:

  • Gasoline
  • Diesel
  • Kerosene
  • Jet Fuels
  • Heating Oils
  • Asphalt (for making roads)

However, long-chain hydrocarbons you find in oil and natural gases are for far less obvious products. You can find it in synthetic rubbers, fertilizers, preservatives, containers, and plastic parts in many products.

The closer an oil and gas company is to provide clients with petroleum products, the further downstream it is in the industry. Downstream operations are oil and gas processes that happen after the production phase to the point of sales.

As this is the final step in the oil and gas production phase, there are many steps to take to ensure its market sales. The refiners of petroleum crude oil and natural gas processors represent this sector of the oil and gas industry. They are the same people who bring usable products to end-users and consumers. They also work with the marketing and distribution of crude oil and natural gas products. To put it in simple words, the downstream oil and gas market is anything that has to do with the post-production of crude oil and natural gas.

You can also use natural gas products in artificial limbs, hearing aids, and flame-retardant clothing to protect fire-fighters. As a matter of fact, you can also find traces of oil and gas products in paints, dyes, fibres, and similar.


Upstream Downstream Midstream Pipelines
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Midstream is a combination of both upstream and downstream in the oil and gas sector. It includes transportation and storage services. This segment of the oil and gas sector usually refers to anything people need to transport and store crude oil and natural gas. This is largely before people refine and process it into fuels and key elements. Those key elements are what clients need to make a very long list of products we use every day.

You can find midstream items in the following:

  • Pipelines
  • Infrastructures that are needed to move resources long-distance
  • Pumping stations
  • Tank trucks
  • Rail tank cars
  • Trans-continental tankers

You will find that midstream operations link the upstream and downstream entities together. It includes mostly resource transportation and storage services for resources. You can commonly find it in pipelines and gathering systems.


Those are what’s meant by upstream, downstream, and midstream in the oil and gas sector. They are all important in equal parts within the oil and gas industry. If you ever need upstream, downstream, and midstream services, we are able to provide as such for you. All you have to do is to reach out to us today for any enquiries!

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Chemical Injection Skids: The Basics

Deck and Hull Repair Services

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Chemical Injection Skids: The Basics

TKR Engineering provides chemical injection skid services for any industry players who need it. Not everyone knows what chemical injection skid is and what it does. If you are here to find out what chemical injection skid is, then read on. In this article, we will try our best to explain what it is, what it does, and who uses it.

What is Chemical Injection Skid?

chemical injection skids - mix images
Image via IF Solutions and Shipserv

As the name implies, the chemical injection skid is a piece of equipment made to inject chemicals into a system. People usually use it to inject chemicals at a certain level of pressure for the system.

The chemical injection may work continuously or intermittently. On top of that, many marine and offshore industries use it in a wide range of settings and for many different purposes. Engineers will then inject water into the reservoir through this kind of oil industry system.

This is to increase pressure and stimulate production. People also use the chemical injection skid to displace or sweep the oil from the reservoir, pushing it towards water injection wells. Those injection wells are usually found in both onshore and offshore. To increase and maintain the reservoir’s rate of production long-term, people only extract 30% of the oil in a reservoir.

There are chemical injection skids with medium and high-pressure injection systems and packages. You can also find other upstream and downstream chemical injection skids. All of those are to clean the waters really well, improve pipeline flow or oil recovery, among many others.

What Are Included in a Chemical Injection Skid System?

You can find quite a few components that make up a chemical injection skid system. Here are some of the main components that make up one.


Tanks are one of the most important components of any chemical injection system. This is mostly because they need to store the chemicals that get injected into the system. Tank sizes and structures may differ. However, they generally will be horizontal and cylindrical. They may feature a flat, conical, or hollow bottom with a flat or a hollow top.


Pumps are another important part of the chemical injection system. It is mostly because they offer the source for generating the flow the pressure needs to achieve the system’s objective. Pumps can be a diaphragm or plunger type and may come in a number of different power sources including the electric motor, air-operated motor, solar power motor, or solenoid driven motor.

Valves and Instrumentations

Chemical injection skid needs valves and instrumentation to measure and monitor what is going on in the system. For example, they will monitor the liquid level inside the tank, allow for the calibration of the flow rate, monitor and adjust the pressure within the system. It may also set off alarms and other fail-safes made to ensure safety and proper functionality. Specific gauges and valves may differ depending on the exact purpose of the chemical injection system and the client’s own specific set of requirements and needs.


A chemical injection system’s electrical system provides a way for the skid to start or stop. It can be done either locally or remotely. Usually, the various controls and functions will route to a control panel for ease of use and function.

Skid Structure

All skid mounted chemical injection systems will also feature a skid structure as part of their fundamental component part. The skid structure offers the structure itself for the system and is made in such a way to protect the system while accommodating its various parts. It will usually feature structural steel that has been continuously welded. A lot of times it will also feature a drip pan made to collect drained chemicals.

What Does a Chemical Injection Skid Do?

Oil rig explosion - oil spill
Image via Pixabay

Traditionally, chemical injection skids are used to clear off any oil spillages and dirty contaminations in rivers or seas. However, it’s not just the oil and gas industries that use chemical injection skids.

It is also common to see agriculture industries using chemical injection skids too. However, they will usually use chemical injection skids to inject pesticides into waters. The pesticide-water mixture is usually for killing off any pests in plantations.

Some common chemical injection skid pumps you can find on the market are:

  • Gear pumps
  • Centrifugal pumps
  • Positive displacement pumps
  • Diaphragm pumps
  • Metering type pumps

You can also find pumps for extremely caustic chemicals. People will usually use centrifugal pumps and gear pumps, as they are more popular. Both the pumps are made to be able to handle chemicals and are usually made from chemical resistant materials.

Commonly Used By Oil & Gas Industries

oil and gas industries
Image via Pixabay

Oil and gas industries are still the biggest users in using chemical injection skid pumps. And for fair reasons too. Those oil and gas industry companies will usually increase their production with the help of chemical injection skid pumps.

The chemical injection assimilates software and hardware equipment. The same hardware equipment helps to impede any dangerous deposits and corrosions. It will also help to improve the quality of oil and gas before transport it to their destinations.

The equipment that the O&G companies need may vary depending on its application, environment, and usage. It can be installed above ground, or even below ground. It some cases, it may be installed in deep water or other harsh environments.

If you are to properly use it, a chemical injection skid system can also provide other benefits. They can assist in minimizing internal corrosion in production tubing. Those can be caused by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.

On top of that, it can remove wax deposits, excess salt, and other minerals that build up. All those build-ups can decrease production efficiency.

After saying all of that, if you are to stack all of these benefits together, it can help increase production times between invasive good interventions. All those benefits (and more) makes chemical injection skid systems a really solid offshore investment.


If you are working in the oil and gas industry, then its good to have a series of chemical injection skids. Even if you don’t work in the oil and gas industry, but still need some, then have at it.

There’s no harm in

getting your company some if you need it to mix 2 kinds of components together belligerently. After all, it’s about increasing production and maximizing company profits.

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Steel Maintenance and Engineering

Deck and Hull Repair Services

Types of Engineering

Deck and Hull Repair Services


Miri, Sarawak

Deck and hull repair services fall under marine engineering. Here at TKR Engineering, we provide deck and hull repair services.

It’s not every day that you wake up and buy a boat. Once you do, it’s important that you take great care of it in its original ship shape. It’s just as important to keep it running efficiently. A lot of companies or people who own boats know that they have to take care of their boats. But how exactly is the main question here?

This is why we are here to talk about our boat maintenance and repairs. We are here to provide you with some interesting insights on how. Take excellent care of your most prized possessions and keep it functioning at top efficiency.

We will cover all that we know about boat repairs in this article. From common boat problems and repair to the materials used on repairing.

Read on to find out more about boat repairs.

How to Know If Your Boat is a Lemon?

Lemon Boat - Boat Repairs
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A broken boat or a boat in need of repairs is called a lemon. There are ways to find out if your boat is a lemon. All you need to do is to look out for signs. Here are a few signs of a lemon boat.

1. Gel Coat Discrepancies

Have a look at the boat’s gel coat it works as its history book. Look out for any cuts in the fibreglass that goes beyond a few inches deep. It can reflect any structural damage below its surface.

Inspect the keel for any signs of beaching too. Anchoring off the beach can be seen as extra work. Some boatmen decide to beach their boats out of convenience. That can easily cause premature wear.

2. Funny Engine Hours

If the low price and engine hours entice you, make sure the seller isn’t joking with you. Don’t pull your leg over a tampered or broken engine hour meter. Write down or take a picture of the number on the meter hours before you set off. Then compare it after the water test. If the meter didn’t move after some time on the water, pass on the purchase. It’ll save you the disappointment of being double-crossed.

3. Bloated Flooring

One way to tell a lemon boat apart from a healthy boat is its flooring. A lemon boat usually has signs of rot and mould. The floorboards may sink and show costly problems head. It can possibly threaten the integrity of the hull.

This problem is especially problematic when the rot spreads to the stringers or structural beams. Repairs can involve a lot of labour and money.

4. Bad Wiring

Haphazard wiring is more than a setback. With vital functions like the blower and bilge pump dependent on good connections, unstable wiring can be a hazardous problem.

First and foremost, check under the dash for any loose wiring and put-together ends with electrical tape. There should be none if everything is linked correctly. Then proceed to push all the buttons and make sure they re-join. This is imperative because installing a new wiring harness can spell several thousand dollars.

Keep an eye on the gauges and ensure that they are reading properly too. Does the alternator gauge show that the gauge is charging? The last thing you want to do after the big purchase is tracking down and replacing shorts in the system.

Having said all of that, it’s always good to keep your boat clean. Maintain proper upkeep within your boat to avoid long-term damage.

Checklist for Boat Repairs

Deck and Hull Repair
Images via Pixabay

Before and after the boat repair, here are a few things to take note of. As soon as all boat repairs are done, you should make sure they are all really done. Here are a few things to ensure the completion of your boat’s repairs. They include:

  • Boat test reports (pre-repair and post-repair)
  • Equipment trial reports (pre-repair and post-repair)
  • Compare actual boat performance to expected performance under OEM manuals
  • Final checking to make sure the boat is sea-worthy

Common Types of Boat Repairs

Here are some common types of boat repairs.

a. Hull Repairs

Hull repairs are one of the most common boat repairs. There are 2 situations where a boat’s hull gets hurt:

  • When the boat is damaged above the waterline
  • When the boat is damaged below the waterline

In the 1st scenario, you can repair the boat while in the water. If it is damaged below the waterline, there’s a good possibility there was continuous ingression of water. Take it to dry land immediately. Then inspect it thoroughly.

A basic hull repair kit is sufficient in repairing the hull. The damage section will be removed in a circular cut. People will then fix the cut-out section using either fibreglass, proper adhesives, or available putties.

b. Core Repairs

Damaged cores are one of the worst things that can happen to a boat. Repairing it can be long, tedious, and an expensive task.

Core damage happens when Core damage occurs due to water intrusion via hull- or deck-fittings. People often use lightweight woods (balsa or plywood) to make cores. Exposure to water can easily eat away and the core starts rotting.

Repairing the core damage involves removing the fibreglass skin to expose the core. This is equivalent to making it new. The basic and fastest solution to repairing the core is to open the area of affection. Remove any water and delaminated core. Then insert a replacement core that re-establishes the structural integrity of the boat.


Now that you have made it this far of this article, you now know that it is important to repair your lemon boat. Do not let your boat rot away as it is such a waste of material and money.

Come to us for your deck and hull repair needs. We are able to reach a deal with you once we have a look over your boat.

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Type of Engineering You Should Know

Fabricated Structural Steel and Its Uses

Steel Maintenance and Engineering

Types of Engineering You Should Know

There are many types of engineering people need to get things done. Engineering is an important aspect when it comes to construction – be it physical or genetically. Here’s a quick definition of what engineering means, according to Encyclopedia Britannica:

Engineering is the application of science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind. The field has been defined by the Engineers Council for Professional Development, in the United States, as the creative application of “scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design, or to forecast their behaviour under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property.” The term engineering is sometimes more loosely defined, especially in Great Britain, as the manufacture or assembly of engines, machine tools, and machine parts.

However, here at TKR Engineering, we touch on the following aspects: Civil Engineering and Marine Engineering.

Regardless of what TKR Engineering services provide in regards to engineering, here are some of the most common engineering you will ever find. Each has their own different uses and can help you accordingly in your workplace.

Common Types of Engineering

Let’s find out what are the common types of engineering in this mini-list. There are a lot of engineering types. However, in this list, we will be touching on the most common kinds of engineering types. Note that some of the engineering types may overlap with each other. It’s normal as every engineer needs to have some kind of basic understanding of other types of engineering.

Civil Engineering

TKR Engineering - Civil Engineering
Image via Pixabay

The quick and short description would be that civil engineering involves the design, construction, maintenance and inspection of large infrastructure projects. If you see infrastructures such as highways, railroads, bridges, tunnels, dams, airports, those buildings and structures need the help of civil engineers.

Early period civil engineering includes structures such as the Giza Pyramids, Great Wall of China, Roman Empire roads, Mayan ruins, to name a few. As long as it includes the design and construction of public works, you will always need the help of civil engineers.

Besides designing and constructing large construction projects, civil engineers also have to handle site preparation projects. They will also have to oversee and write the specifications for destructive or non-destructive testing. All that encompasses the performance, reliability, and long-term reliability of materials and structures.

Mechanical Engineering

TKR Engineering - Mechanical Engineering
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This branch of engineering is one of the oldest branches of engineering. Mechanical engineering dates all the way back to when the first wheels are put together for practical uses. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) says:

Mechanical engineering dates to ancient Greece and China, where mechanisms like screw pumps, steam engines, clocks, seismometers and even differential gears were invented.

Mechanical engineers basically create straightforward and non-complicated commodities that your regular Joe will use. They can also create other high-value items for the military or government sectors too. Any weapons made for modern warfare falls under the predisposition of mechanical engineering.

To put it in simple words: mechanical engineering deals with anything that moves. Mechanical engineers still use basic components that people have been using for many years. Mechanical engineers use components such as the wheel, axles, levers, screws, springs.

Movement generally can be powered and operated by human beings or animals. It can also be run by animals, heat, pressure of combustion, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators, electromagnetism, etc. Your average mechanical engineer is best familiarized with all these basic motions and more.

Mechanical engineers traditionally hold office jobs. They may have to visit worksites from time to time. They usually work around engineering services, research and development, manufacturing industries, and similar.

Structural Engineering

TKR Engineering - Structural Engineering
Image via Pixabay

This is where it involves the design, construction, and inspection of load-bearing structures. Large commercial buildings, bridges, and industrial infrastructure falls under this overview. Structural engineers focus on the framework of structures. They also design structures to withstand the stress and pressure of their environment. Structural engineers ensure that buildings do not fall down and bridges don’t collapse.

Structural engineering falls under civil engineering. So, in some ways, you can also say that structural engineering is one of the oldest types of engineering. It goes way back to the first time where people use tree branches and vines to make a shelter.

When it comes to structural engineering, its engineers will have to ensure that the structures they build are able to withstand battle gravity, rain, snow, and other natural elements to provide everyone with outstanding structures.

These engineers will usually design roof framing, floor framings, arches, columns, braces, frames, foundations, and walls. The materials they use to create and design the structures include steel, concrete, wood, masonry, and aluminium.

Structural engineers need to have critical thinking skills – especially in physics and maths. They will have to know the properties of various materials such as material density, hardness, tensile strength, bulk modulus, and bending strength. At the same time, they have to be able to calculate how different material will perform under stress as well as various environmental conditions. They will also need to predict how these structures and materials will perform over an extended period of time too.


It’s no huge surprise that there can be considerable overlap between different kinds of engineering specialities. Generally, it means your average engineers have understandings of several engineering areas.

At the same time, it is without a doubt that engineers do need to have an in-depth knowledge of maths, physics, and computer applications. It’s normal to see simulation programs in colleges that include basic engineering courses in a wide range of topics. This is before engineering students choose to specialise in one particular area that they are good in. That’s why it’s engineers that brought the human race out of the caves, took us to the moon and back (literally), among others.

If you have any engineering needs, do not hesitate to reach out to us for a business quote.

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Steel Maintenance and Engineering

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